Deploying an experiment to Prolific

Prolific is a paid service for sourcing online participants for psychology experiments. For a general introduction to Prolific, visit the Prolific website.

PsyNet has recently (as of 2022) developed support for deploying experiments to Prolific. The integration works well already, and we’ve deployed many successful experiments via this route. However we are still finessing some aspects of the integration to improve the user experience.

Setting up your Prolific account

The first step is to create a Prolific account via Prolific website. Before you can run experiments you will have to add funds to your account.

Setting up your computer

In order to connect your local computer to your Prolific account you will have to download an API key from the Prolific website. You can access this by navigating to the Prolific website, clicking ‘Settings’, then under ‘Developer tools’ clicking ‘Go to API token page’. Create a token here, and copy it to your clipboard. You will put this token in a general configuration file called .dallingerconfig; information placed here is shared across all experiments that you run on your computer. This file is located in your home directory, at ~/.dallingerconfig. If the file doesn’t exist already, create it; then open it with a text editor. Enter your API key as follows:

prolific_api_token = xxxxxxx

Save and close the file.

Setting experiment configuration

Several aspects of the experiment configuration need setting before you deploy to Prolific. This is done by editing config.txt, or equivalently by setting values in the Experiment config dictionary, for example:

class Experiment(Exp):
    config = {
        "wage_per_hour": 10,

First you need to specify the config variable currency, which corresponds to the currency with which you expect to pay your participants. This is specified as a symbol, for example $. With Prolific you will ordinarily be paying in pounds (£). If you want to pay in a different currency, you need to contact Prolific support.

Then you need to specify wage_per_hour, i.e. how much you will aim to pay your participants per hour, as expressed in your fundamental currency unit.

In practice PsyNet pays participants through a combination of base payment and bonus. The base payment is fixed, and is ideally small. It is set via the config parameter base_payment. The bonus is dynamic, and increases depending on how far the participant makes it through the experiment. The value of this progress-related bonus is determined by multiplying the time_estimate for the part for the experiment they completed by the wage_per_hour (converting from seconds to hours as required). The bonus may also include a portion corresponding to performance rewards.

PsyNet therefore pays people primarily through the bonus mechanism. This is at odds to how Prolific is currently designed, in that Prolific assumes that the primary payment will come from the base payment. This has implications in the way that Prolific treats the duration of experiments. When you deploy an experiment to Prolific, you have to specify a duration of the experiment. Prolific will compare that duration to your base payment to make sure that you are paying the participants enough. So, when you deploy the experiment with Prolific, you need to set the duration to a small value, corresponding to the size of your base payment. This is done via the prolific_estimated_completion_minutes config variable. If you don’t set the duration to this small amount, then Prolific will complain that your hourly wage is too low.

A second problem comes from the fact that Prolific imposes an automatic time-out mechanism for participants who take too long to complete your experiment. This time-out duration seems to be defined as a multiple of prolific_estimated_completion_minutes. If you set your experiment duration (and hence your base payment) too low, then participants will time out before they can finish your experiment. It’s not the end of the world if participants time out – you can manually approve them via the Prolific interface – but it’s a bit annoying, so it’s worth avoiding.

In practice, if you are deploying a 15-minute experiment, it seems to work to set prolific_estimated_completion_minutes to 3, and then set your base payment to about 50 cents. If you’re confident in the duration of the experiment you could reduce the duration to 3 minutes or so.

Now you need to set your experiment’s title, which is done via the title config parameter. Here you should emphasize a few things:

  • The participant needs a Chrome browser

  • The participant needs headphones (if appropriate)

  • The actual duration of the experiment

  • The wage per hour

For example, you might write “Organ chords experiment (headphones required, Chrome browser, 10-15 minutes, £10/hour payment)”.

Next you set the experiment’s description parameter. This provides more information about the experiment. You should explain the payment strategy in more detail, in particular how they will be paid for the time they take on the experiment via Prolific’s bonus functionality. You should explain briefly what your payment policy will be if the participant doesn’t finish the experiment due to a technical error.


If you do not use your own domain name (via the --dns-host argument), then Dallinger automatically uses a subdomain. We think this may be causing certain participants to encounter phishing warnings. It seems that this error can be avoided by instructing the participant to take the test in an incognito browser.

You should select the Prolific recruiter by setting the config parameter recruiter to prolific. Also, for most users we recommend setting the auto_recruit parameter to false, meaning that you will manually control the recruitment of participants via the Prolific interface rather than letting PsyNet manage it for you.

In summary, your config.txt might look something like this:

title = Organ chords experiment (headphones required, Chrome browser, 10-15 minutes, £10/hour payment)
description = This is a music listening experiment, but no musical expertise is required to take part. You will listen to chords played on the organ, and you will be asked to rate them for pleasantness. We use a dynamic payment scheme which means you get paid in proportion to how far you make it through the experiment.

recruiter = prolific
auto_recruit = false
wage_per_hour = 10
base_payment = 0.5
prolific_estimated_completion_minutes = 3

Testing your experiment

It’s a good idea to test your experiment thoroughly before deploying it. There are a few ways to do this:

  1. Take it as a participant on your local computer by running bash docker/psynet debug local;

  2. Run the automated experiment tests via bash docker/run pytest

  3. Pilot it on your remote server by setting recruiter = generic in config.txt and then running bash docker/psynet debug ssh --app your-app-name.


If you are running automated experiment tests via Docker as instructed above, and you are using an Apple Silicon Mac, then make sure you have selected ‘Use Rosetta for x86/amd64 emulation on Apple Silicon’ under the Docker preferences, otherwise the tests will run very slowly.

Deploying your experiment

When you’re ready to deploy your experiment, give your config one last check, making sure that the prolific recruiter is selected. If you need to be connected to a VPN in order to access your server, make sure you are connected to the VPN.

Now you can deploy your app. If you do not have a domain name, then PsyNet will automatically use a subdomain.

psynet deploy ssh --app your-app-name

If you do have a domain name, you should specify it via the --dns-host argument. For example, Cambridge users might use:

psynet deploy ssh --app your-app-name --dns-host


Replace your-app-name with a name of your choice. This name will become part of the URL that participants will visit to take part in your experiment, so make sure it doesn’t include any funny characters or spaces. If your server is limited to a specific set of subdomains, your app name will be restricted to one of those subdomains. For example, in Cambridge we use psynet-01, psynet-02, etc. as app names, which then resolve to URLs of the form,, etc.

If the command runs successfully, it should print a link to your Prolific dashboard. PsyNet will have automatically created a ‘draft study’ for your, populating certain elements such as the title, description, and so on. Go through this draft study carefully and make sure that all the details are set appropriately.

There is one item that is labeled something like ‘Process submissions’, where the options are ‘Manually review’ and ‘Approve and pay’. Currently we think the best thing is to select ‘Approve and pay’ but this might change in the future.

Another item asks you how many participants you wish to recruit. This corresponds to the initial_recruitment_size parameter in the config.txt file. Even if you plan to recruit a large number of participants, e.g. 100, it’s normally best to start with a small number, and only increase the number of participants once you’re sure that everything is working well. We’ve found in the past that if you give too small a number, however, Prolific deprioritizes your study, and recruitment is slow. We recommend starting with something like 10 participants.

You can set particular demographic criteria via the Prolific interface at this point. For example, you might choose to select participants from only a certain few countries. Advanced users may instead want to control this behavior via PsyNet; see below for instructions.

There is also an option to set a limit on the number of participants that can take the experiment at the same time. In theory this would be a great idea for protecting your server from excessive loads. However, I have found in practice that recruitment seems strangely slow (or even non-existent) when this is set. I would recommend skipping this option for now.

At this point you can preview the study as if you were a Prolific participant. It’s a good idea to do this and check that everything looks OK.

Once you’re ready, click Publish study. Your study will now be advertised to participants. At this point you can manually decide how many participants you want to recruit. It’s a good idea to start with a small number in case something goes wrong. Monitor the study by keeping an eye on the following routes:

  • The experiment dashboard;

  • The Prolific messages page;

  • The Dozzle logs.

Once you’re happy that the experiment is running well, you can increase the number of participants. PsyNet seems to cope fine with e.g. 50 participants at a time, but this will depend a bit on the efficiency of your own code.

Increase places in the survey

Participants may encounter technical errors. Respond to them promptly via the Prolific website, and tell them that you can pay them if they return their submission. You can look up a particular participant via their Prolific ID in the experiment dashboard to see how much bonus they had accumulated so far (look via the Participant tab). Normally you would pay the participant this amount of money via the Prolific website, as a bonus; you may also wish to pay them the base payment, or part of the base payment.

Before you terminate your experiment, you want to make sure you deal with all the participants in the ‘Awaiting review’ category. Some of these participants may be people who had technical errors; some may have just stopped the experiment early. You need to look through these cases and deal with them appropriately. It’s best to have a dialogue with the participant where possible, rather than rejecting their submissions straightaway, which can upset people.

Pay participants who are awaiting review

Once the experiment is finished, export the data with psynet export ssh --app your-app-name, then take down the experiment by running psynet destroy ssh --app your-app-name.

Copying qualifications

Sometimes you want to reuse demographic criteria across multiple studies. To do this, you should first use the Prolific interface to specify a set of demographic criteria. You can then export these criteria to a JSON file by doing the following. First, list your Prolific experiments by running the following:

dallinger hits --recruiter prolific

which will return the full list of completed or running studies, e.g.:

$ dallinger hits --recruiter prolific
❯❯ Found 23 hit[s]:
Hit ID                    Title                                        Annotation (experiment ID)                                                                                       Status           Created                 Expiration    Description
------------------------  -------------------------------------------  ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  ---------------  ----------------------  ------------  -------------
63cd3c0de6a9e2d84d694454  Testen Sie Ihre Sprachkenntnisse! (Chrom...  Testen Sie Ihre Sprachkenntnisse! (Chrome browser notwendig, ~8 Minutes) (2b597a65-2e1d-8255-32e4-c1036719deb8)  AWAITING REVIEW  2023/1/22 01:37:17 PM

To see unpublished studies, add the --sandbox flag.

Now copy the field HIT ID and run:

dallinger copy-qualifications --hit_id <HIT_ID> --recruiter prolific

Optionally, you can specify a new path for the qualification, e.g.: --qualification_path qualification_prolific_de.json for qualifications for German participants.

Finally, you need to add the qualification to your config.txt file:

prolific_recruitment_config = file:prolific_config.json

If you don’t have an existing experiment from which you want to copy the qualifications, you can create a draft study in Prolific and then copy its HIT ID using the same steps as before.