Setting config variables#

Setting config variables can be done in multiple ways depending on the type of a variable.

Global variables#

Global variables should be set via the .dallingerconfig file in your home directory. This applies in particular to those which have to be keep secret and which should under no circumstances be added to Git. They are global in the sense that they apply to all experiments being developed and deployed by the user. Declaration of global variables allows for the grouping into freely to be chosen sections. For example:

aws_access_key_id = your-secret-aws-access-key-id

contact_email_on_error =

Experiment-specific variables#

Experiment-specific variables can be set in two ways – firstly via a config.txt file in the experiment’s root directory which follows the same syntactic rules as the one for global variables above. For example:

[Custom settings]
show_abort_button = true
base_payment = 1.2
currency = €

Secondly, they can also be set by creating a config dictionary in the Experiment class like this:

class Exp(Experiment):
    config = {
        "wage_per_hour": 12.0,
        "show_abort_button": True,


When setting variables via config.txt or .dallingerconfig boolean values can be assigned be either using true, True, false, or False.

Available config variables#

Config variables originate from either PsyNet or Dallinger , the latter being the software PsyNet is built upon. What follows is an exhaustive list of all known config variables grouped into specific sections and sorted alphabetically. Sensitive variables are marked with .


base_port int

The port to be used to access the web application. Normally there should not be the need to change this from the default. Default 5000.

check_participant_opened_devtools bool

If True, whenever a participant opens the developer tools in the web browser, this is logged as participant.var.opened_devtools = True, and the participant is shown a warning alert message. Default: False.


Chrome does not currently expose an official way of checking whether the participant opens the developer tools. People therefore have to rely on hacks to detect it. These hacks can often be broken by updates to Chrome. We’ve therefore disabled this check by default, to reduce the risk of false positives. Experimenters wishing to enable the check for an individual experiment are recommended to verify that the check works appropriately before relying on it. We’d be grateful for any contributions of updated developer tools checks.

color_mode unicode

The color mode to be used. Must be one of light, dark, or auto. Default: light.

dallinger_develop_directory unicode

The directory on your computer to be used to hold files and symlinks when running dallinger develop. Defaults to ~/dallinger_develop (a folder named dallinger_develop inside your home directory).

dashboard_password unicode

An optional password for accessing the Dallinger Dashboard interface. If not specified, a random password will be generated.

dashboard_user unicode

An optional login name for accessing the Dallinger Dashboard interface. If not specified admin will be used.

enable_global_experiment_registry bool

Enable a global experiment id registration. When enabled, the collect API check this registry to see if an experiment has already been run and reject re-running an experiment if it has been.


This concerns a Dallinger feature not currently used by PsyNet.

label unicode

This variable is used internally for data export.


This feature may be revised in the future.

lock_table_when_creating_participant bool

Prevents possible deadlocks on the Participant table. Historically we have locked the participant table when creating participants to avoid database inconsistency problems. However some experimenters have experienced some deadlocking problems associated with this locking, so we have made it an opt-out behavior. Default: True.

logfile unicode

Where to write logs.

loglevel unicode

A number between 0 and 4 that controls the verbosity of logs and maps to one of debug (0), info (1), warning (2), error (3), or critical (4). Note that psynet debug ignores this setting and always runs at 0 (debug). Default: 0.

protected_routes unicode - JSON formatted

An optional JSON array of Flask route rule names which should be made inaccessible. Example:

protected_routes = ["/participant/<participant_id>", "/network/<network_id>", "/node/<int:node_id>/neighbors"]

Accessing routes included in this list will raise a PermissionError and no data will be returned.

show_abort_button bool

If True, the Ad page displays an Abort button the participant can click to terminate the HIT, e.g. in case of an error where the participant is unable to finish the experiment. Clicking the button assures the participant is compensated on the basis of the amount of reward that has been accumulated. Default False.

show_reward bool

If True (default), then the participant’s current estimated reward is displayed at the bottom of the page.

show_footer bool

If True (default), then a footer is displayed at the bottom of the page containing a Help button and reward information if show_reward is set to True.

show_progress_bar bool

If True (default), then a progress bar is displayed at the top of the page.

whimsical bool

When set to True, this config variable enables ‘whimsical’ tone on Dallinger email notifications to the experimenter. When False (default), the notifications have a matter-of-fact tone.

window_height int

Determines the width in pixels of the window that opens when the participant starts the experiment. Only active if recruiter.start_experiment_in_popup_window is True. Default: 768.

window_width int

Determines the width in pixels of the window that opens when the participant starts the experiment. Only active if recruiter.start_experiment_in_popup_window is True. Default: 1024.


base_payment float

Base payment in the currency set via the currency config variable. All workers who accept the HIT are guaranteed this much compensation.

currency unicode

The currency in which the participant gets paid. Default: $.

hard_max_experiment_payment float

Guarantees that in an experiment no more is spent than the value assigned. Bonuses are not paid from the point this value is reached and a record of the amount of unpaid bonus is kept in the participant’s unpaid_bonus variable. Default: 1100.0.

max_participant_payment float

The maximum payment, in the currency set via the currency config variable, that a participant is allowed to get. Default: 25.0.

min_accumulated_reward_for_abort float

The threshold of reward accumulated, in the currency set via the currency config variable, for the participant to be able to receive compensation when aborting an experiment using the Abort experiment button. Default: 0.20.

soft_max_experiment_payment float

The recruiting process stops if the amount of accumulated payments (incl. time and performance rewards), in the currency set via the currency config variable, exceedes this value. Default: 1000.0.

wage_per_hour float

The payment in currency the participant gets per hour. Default: 9.0.



activate_recruiter_on_start bool

A boolean on whether recruitment should start automatically when the experiment launches. If set to false the user has to manually initialize recruitment (e.g. via the Prolific panel). Default: true.

auto_recruit bool

A boolean on whether recruitment should be automatic.

description unicode

Depending on the recruiter being used, either

  • The description of the HIT (Amazon Mechanical Turk), or

  • the description of the Study (Prolific).

initial_recruitment_size int

The number of participants initially to be recruited. This value is used during the experiment’s launch phase to start the recruitment process. Default: 1.

recruiter unicode

The recruiter class to use during the experiment run. While this can be a full class name, it is more common to use the class’s nickname property for this value; for example mturk, prolific, cli, bots, or multi.


When running in debug mode, the HotAir recruiter (hotair) will always be used. The exception is if the --bots option is passed to psynet debug, in which case the BotRecruiter will be used instead.

recruiters unicode - custom format

When using multiple recruiters in a single experiment run via the multi setting for the recruiter config key, recruiters allows you to specify which recruiters you’d like to use, and how many participants to recruit from each. The special syntax for this value is:

recruiters = [nickname 1]: [recruits], [nickname 2]: [recruits], etc.

For example, to recruit 5 human participants via MTurk, and 5 bot participants, the configuration would be:

recruiters = mturk: 5, bots: 5

title unicode

Depending on the recruiter being used, either

  • The title of the HIT (Amazon Mechanical Turk), or

  • the title of the Study (Prolific).

Allowed browsers and devices#

allow_mobile_devices bool

Allows the user to use mobile devices. If it is set to false it will tell the user to open the experiment on their computer. Default: False.

force_google_chrome bool

Forces the user to use the Google Chrome browser. If another browser is used, it will give detailed instructions on how to install Google Chrome. Default: True.


PsyNet only officially supports Google Chrome.

force_incognito_mode bool

Forces the user to open the experiment in a private browsing (i.e. incognito mode). This is helpful as incognito mode prevents the user from accessing their browsing history, which could be used to influence the experiment. Furthermore it does not enable addons which can interfere with the experiment. If the user is not using incognito mode, it will give detailed instructions on how to open the experiment in incognito mode. Default: False.

min_browser_version unicode

The minimum version of the Chrome browser a participant needs in order to take a HIT. Default: 80.0.


Amazon Mechanical Turk#
approve_requirement integer

The percentage of past MTurk HITs that must have been approved for a worker to qualify to participate in your experiment. 1-100.

assign_qualifications bool

A boolean which controls whether an experiment-specific qualification (based on the experiment ID), and a group qualification (based on the value of group_name) will be assigned to participants by the recruiter. This feature assumes a recruiter which supports qualifications, like the MTurkRecruiter.

aws_access_key_id unicode

AWS access key ID.

aws_region unicode

AWS region to use. Default: us-east-1.

aws_secret_access_key unicode

AWS access key secret.

browser_exclude_rule unicode - comma separated

A set of rules you can apply to prevent participants with unsupported web browsers from participating in your experiment. Valid exclusion values are:

  • mobile

  • tablet

  • touchcapable

  • pc

  • bot

disable_when_duration_exceeded bool

Whether to disable recruiting and expire the HIT when the duration has been exceeded. This only has an effect when clock_on is enabled.

duration float

How long in hours participants have until the HIT will time out.

group_name unicode

Assign a named qualification to workers who complete a HIT.

keywords unicode

A comma-separated list of keywords to use on Amazon Mechanical Turk.

lifetime integer

How long in hours that your HIT remains visible to workers.

mturk_qualification_blocklist unicode - comma seperated

Comma-separated list of qualification names. Workers with qualifications in this list will be prevented from viewing and accepting the HIT.

mturk_qualification_requirements unicode – JSON formatted

A JSON list of qualification documents to pass to Amazon Mechanical Turk.

us_only bool

Controls whether this HIT is available only to MTurk workers in the U.S.

cap_recruiter_auth_token unicode

Authentication token for communication with the API of the CAP-Recruiter web application.

lucid_api_key unicode

The key used to access the Lucid/Cint API.

lucid_sha1_hashing_key unicode

The key used to create the HMAC used in the SHA1 hash function that generates the hash used when sending requests to the Lucid/Cint API.

lucid_recruitment_config unicode – JSON formatted

prolific_api_token unicode

A Prolific API token is requested from Prolific via email or some other non-programmatic channel, and should be stored in your ~/.dallingerconfig file.

prolific_api_version unicode

The version of the Prolific API you’d like to use

The default (v1) is defined in global_config_defaults.txt.

prolific_estimated_completion_minutes int

Estimated duration in minutes of the experiment or survey.

prolific_recruitment_config unicode - JSON formatted

JSON data to add additional recruitment parameters. Since some recruitment parameters are complex and are defined with relatively complex syntax, Dallinger allows you to define this configuration in raw JSON. The parameters you would typically specify this way include:

  • device_compatibility

  • peripheral_requirements

  • eligibility_requirements

See the Prolific API Documentation for details.

Configuration can also be stored in a separate JSON file, and included by using the filename, prefixed with file:, as the configuration value. For example, to use a JSON file called prolific_config.json, you would first create this file, with valid JSON as contents:

    "eligibility_requirements": [
            "attributes": [
                    "name": "white_list",
                    "value": [
                        # worker ID one,
                        # worker ID two,
                        # etc.
            "_cls": "web.eligibility.models.CustomWhitelistEligibilityRequirement"

You can also specify the devices you expect the participants to have, e.g.:

    "eligibility_requirements": […],
    "device_compatibility": ["desktop"],
    "peripheral_requirements": ["audio", "microphone"]

Supported devices are desktop, tablet, and mobile. Supported peripherals are audio, camera, download (download additional software to run the experiment), and microphone.

You would then include this file in your overall configuration by adding the following to your config.txt file:

prolific_recruitment_config = file:prolific_config.json


While it is technically possible to specify other recruitment values this way (for example, {"title": "My Experiment Title"}), we recommend that you stick to the standard key = value format of config.txt whenever possible, and leave prolific_recruitment_config for complex requirements which can’t be configured in this simpler way.


Prolific will use the currency of your researcher account and convert automatically to the participant’s currency.



clock_on bool

If the clock process is on, it will enable a task scheduler to run automated background tasks. By default, a single task is registered which performs a series of checks that ensure the integrity of the database. The configuration option disable_when_duration_exceeded configures the behavior of that task.

host unicode

IP address of the host.

port unicode

Port of the host.


database_size unicode

Size of the database on Heroku. See Heroku Postgres plans.

database_url unicode

URI of the Postgres database.

dyno_type unicode

Heroku dyno type to use. See Heroku dynos types.

dyno_type_web unicode

This determines how powerful the heroku web dynos are. It applies only to web dynos and will override the default set in dyno_type. See dyno_type above for details on specific values.

dyno_type_worker unicode

This determines how powerful the heroku worker dynos are. It applies only to worker dynos and will override the default set in dyno_type.. See dyno_type above for details on specific values.

heroku_python_version unicode

The python version to be used on Heroku deployments. The version specification will be deployed to Heroku in a runtime.txt file in accordance with Heroku’s deployment API. Note that only the version number should be provided (eg: 3.11.5) and not the python- prefix included in the final runtime.txt format. See Heroku supported runtimes.

heroku_team unicode

The name of the Heroku team to which all applications will be assigned. This is useful for centralized billing. Note, however, that it will prevent you from using free-tier dynos.

num_dynos_web integer

Number of Heroku dynos to use for processing incoming HTTP requests. It is recommended that you use at least two.

num_dynos_worker integer

Number of Heroku dynos to use for performing other computations.

redis_size unicode

Size of the redis server on Heroku. See Heroku Redis.

sentry bool

When set to True enables the Sentry ( Heroku addon for performance monitoring of experiments. Default: False.

threads unicode

The number of gunicorn web worker processes started per Heroku CPU count. When given the default value of auto the number of worker processes will be calculated using the formula round(multiprocessing.cpu_count() * worker_multiplier)) + 1 by making use of the worker_multiplier config variable. Default: auto.

worker_multiplier float

Multiplier used to determine the number of gunicorn web worker processes started per Heroku CPU count. Reduce this if you see Heroku warnings about memory limits for your experiment. Default: 1.5.

For help on choosing appropriate configuration variables, also see this Dallinger documentation page at


docker_image_base_name unicode

A string that will be used to name the docker image generated by this experiment. Defaults to the experiment directory name (bartlett1932, chatroom etc). To enable repeatability a generated docker image can be pushed to a registry. To this end the registry needs to be specified in the docker_image_base_name. For example:



docker_image_name unicode

The docker image name to use for this experiment. If present, the code in the current directory will not be used when deploying. The specified image will be used instead. Example:


docker_volumes unicode

Additional list of volumes to mount when deploying using docker. Example:

  • /host/path:/container_path,/another-path:/another-container-path


allow_switching_locale bool

Allow the user to change the language of the experiment during the experiment. Default: False.


This feature is still experimental.

language unicode

A gettext language code to be used for the experiment.

supported_locales list

List of locales (i.e., ISO language codes) a user can pick from, e.g., ["en"]. Default: [].

Email Notifications#

contact_email_on_error unicode

The email address used as the recipient for error report emails, and the email displayed to workers when there is an error.

dallinger_email_address unicode

An email address for use by Dallinger to send status emails.

smtp_host unicode

Hostname and port of a mail server for outgoing mail. Default:

smtp_username unicode

Username for outgoing mail host.

smtp_password unicode

Password for the outgoing mail host.

See Email Notification Setup in the Dallinger documentation for a much more detailed explanation of above config variables and their use.

Experiment debugging#

enable_google_search_console bool

Used to enable a special route allowing the site to be claimed in the Google Search Console dashboard of the Google account. This allows the account to investigate and debug Chrome warnings (e.g. ‘Deceptive website ahead’). See Google Search Console. The route is disabled by default, but can be enabled by assigning True. Default: False.

Misc (internal) variables#

chrome-path unicode

Used for darwin (macOS) only.


Config variable to manually set an experiment class name.

heroku_app_id_root unicode

Internally used only.

heroku_auth_token unicode

The Heroku authentication token. Internally used only and set automatically.

id unicode

Internally used only.

infrastructure_debug_details unicode

Redis debug info details.

question_max_length unicode

Dallinger-only variable when using questionnaires. Default: 1000.

replay bool

Support for replaying experiments from exported data. Set internally when using the optional --replay flag to start the experiment locally in replay mode. Default: False.

webdriver_type unicode

The webdriver type to use when using bots (e.g. when writing tests). Possible values are chrome, chrome_headless, and firefox. Default: chrome_headless. Also see Dallinger’s documentation on writing bots at

webdriver_url unicode

Used to provide a URL to a Selenium WebDriver instance. Also see Dallinger’s documentation on scaling Selenium bots at

Config variables not to be set manually#


Below variables are set automatically and should never be set manually!

dallinger_version str

The version of the Dallinger package.

hard_max_experiment_payment_email_sent bool

Whether an email to the experimenter has already been sent indicating the hard_max_experiment_payment had been reached. Default: False. Once this is True, no more emails will be sent about this payment limit being reached.

mode unicode

The value for mode is determined by the invoking command-line command and will either be set to debug (local debugging) sandbox (MTurk sandbox), or live (MTurk).

psynet_version str

The version of the psynet package.

python_version str

The version of the Python.

soft_max_experiment_payment_email_sent bool

Whether an email to the experimenter has already been sent indicating the soft_max_experiment_payment had been reached. Default: False. Once this is True, no more emails will be sent about this payment limit being reached.